In 1896, German tropical fish expert Paul Matte introduced the first specimens into Germany from Moscow, definitely from the stress developed by Carbonnier. This suggests bettas were already just a little based in France and Russia by the turn of the 20 th century. Fighting fish were also latest in Australia by 1904, in line with an editorial written by British born zoologist Edgar Ravenswood Waite and published by the Australian Museum in Sydney. Waite shows that Australian specimens were introduced from Penang, Malaysia, near the border with Thailand. He also makes reference to two articles about “combating fish” published by Carbonnier in 1874 and 1881. Bettas may have first entered america in 1910, via importers in California; there also is evidence they were imported in 1927 from Cambodia.