can siamese fighting fish live aloneShaping also was needless for response acquisition with either male or, in these experiments, female Bettas. Under the latest FR 1 schedules of immediate reinforcement with women Experiments 1, 2, and 3, response rates varied between 0 and 40. 2 responses per hr. Response rates under FR 1 schedules also were variable across individual male Bettas in both Lattal and Metzger 1994 and Wirth et al. 2003, ranging among near zero and almost 400 responses per hr, depending on the situations in effect Wirth et al. manipulated reinforcer length.